A Step-by-Step Guide to Recording Journal Entries for Bond Issuance

When the bond is issued at par, the cash receipt from the bond issuance is equal to the par or face value of the bond. One of the main disadvantages of issuing bonds is that it can increase a company’s debt. This can be a particular issue for smaller businesses, as bond interest payments can be costly if not managed responsibly. When a company issues bonds, they borrow money from investors who purchase the bonds at a fixed price. The convertible bonds will allow the company to raise a fund with a lower interest rate as the investors saw the convertible options as the other benefit. Convertible bond contains both elements of debt instrument and equity instrument.

If the estimates are true, this means that all 176 employees of the company will not receive year-end bonuses, which represent a significant portion of their pay. Except for the initial entry, these events would be recorded in an identical fashion if Brisbane had signed this same note to acquire an asset such as a piece of machinery. No cash is involved in the beginning; the debt is incurred to acquire the property directly. The only reporting difference is that the asset replaces cash in the first journal entry above.

Bonds Issued At A Premium

Since they promised to pay 5% while similar bonds earn 7%, the company, accepted less cash up front. They did this because giving a discount but still paying only 5% interest on the face value is mathematically the same as receiving the face value but paying 7% interest. Since the bond is issued at par, the interest rate and coupon rates are the same.

  • Each of these cash disbursements is for $12,000 which is the $400,000 face value × the 6 percent annual stated interest rate × 1/2 year.
  • When a bond is issued at a premium, the journal entry is a debit to the bonds payable account and a credit to the cash account for the face value of the bond, plus the premium.
  • Part of each scheduled payment reduces the face value of the obligation so that no large amount remains to be paid on the maturity date.
  • Municipal bonds are a specific type of bonds that are issued by
    governmental entities such as towns and school districts.

The 8% market rate of interest equates to a semiannual rate of 4%, the 6% market rate scenario equates to a 3% semiannual rate, and the 10% rate is 5% per semiannual period. Consequently, such bonds are normally issued for a stated amount plus accrued interest. The accrued interest is measured from the previous payment date and charged to the buyer. Later, when the first interest payment is made, the net effect reflects just the time that the bond has been outstanding. If issued on October 1, Year One, the creditors should pay for the bonds plus five months of accrued interest. Then, when Brisbane makes the first required interest payment on November 1 for six months, the net effect is interest for one month—the period since the date of issuance (six months minus five months).

It is the long term debt which issues by the company, government, and other entities. It must be classified as long-term liability unless it going to mature within a year. This example demonstrates the least complicated method of a bond issuance and retirement at maturity.

Benefits of investing in bonds

We tend to think of them as home loans, but they can also be used for commercial real estate purchases. Under both IFRS and US GAAP, the general definition of a long-term liability is similar. However, there are many types of long-term liabilities, and various types have specific measurement and reporting criteria that may differ between the two sets of accounting standards. With two exceptions, bonds payable are primarily the same under the two sets of standards. Issuers must set the contract rate before the bonds are actually sold to allow time for such activities as printing the bonds.

3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds

So the journal entry is debit bonds payable and credit cash paid to investors. When the bonds issue at premium or discount, there will be a different balance between par value and cash received. The difference is premium/discount on bonds payable, which will impact the bonds carrying value presented in the balance sheet. When a company issues bonds, they make a promise to pay interest annually or sometimes more often. If the interest is paid annually, the journal entry is made on the last day of the bond’s year.

Issued When Market Rate Equals Contract Rate

The resulting premium or discount is in the form of interest accumulated and amortized over the life of the bond. The valuation of bonds at the issuance date is the present value of future payments using an interest rate that reflects the risk category of the issued bonds. In order to illustrate how the bonds issued and sold at par is recorded, let’s go through the example below. Understanding how to record a journal entry for bond issuance is an important skill for any business owner. The amount of the debt is the difference between the face value of the bond and the price it was sold for, and the credit is equal to the face value of the bond. This entry reduces the amount charged to interest expense by the issuing company.

Thus, investors purchasing bonds after the bonds begin to accrue interest must pay the seller for the unearned interest accrued since the preceding interest date. The bondholders are reimbursed for this accrued interest when they receive their first six months’ interest check. The same as discount bonds, in accordance with the GAAP, the premium on bonds is also recorded separately from the bonds payable account. The premium on bonds payable is added to the par value to arrive at the carrying value of the bonds.

How to Account for Bonds

If the company had issued 5% bonds
that paid interest semiannually, interest payments would be made
twice a year, but each interest payment would only be half an
annual interest payment. Earning interest for a full year at 5%
annually is the equivalent of receiving half of that amount each
six months. So, for semiannual payments, we would divide 5% by 2
and pay 2.5% every six months. To further explain, the interest amount on the $1,000, 8% bond is $40 every six months. Because the bonds have a 5-year life, there are 10 interest payments (or periods). The periodic interest is an annuity with a 10-period duration, while the maturity value is a lump-sum payment at the end of the tenth period.

Under the effective-interest method, the interest expense is calculated by taking the Carrying (or Book) Value ($104,460) multiplied by the market interest rate (4%). The amount of the cash payment in this example is calculated by taking the face value of the bond ($100,000) multiplied by the stated rate. On the date that the bonds were issued, the company received cash of $104,460.00 but agreed to pay $100,000.00 in the future for 100 bonds with a $1,000 face value. The difference in the amount received and the amount owed is called the premium.

Therefore, to service the Series I notes issued above, Marriott will be required to make annual interest payments of $22,312,500 ($350 million face value × the stated interest rate of 6.375 expense recognition principle percent). A mortgage calculator provides monthly payment estimates for a long-term loan like a mortgage. Mortgages are long-term liabilities that are used to finance real estate purchases.

Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License . Beyond FASB’s preferred method of interest amortization discussed here, there is another method, the straight-line method.

Assume, for instance, that the contract rate for a bond issue is set at 12%. If the market rate is equal to the contract rate, the bonds will sell at their face value. However, by the time the bonds are sold, the market rate could be higher or lower than the contract rate.

However, there are many types of
long-term liabilities, and various types have specific measurement
and reporting criteria that may differ between the two sets of
accounting standards. With two exceptions, bonds payable are
primarily the same under the two sets of standards. Let’s illustrate this scenario with a corporation preparing to issue a 9% $100,000 bond dated January 1, 2022.

Based on the information provided, Marriott will be required to pay the $350 million face value of its Series I notes during 2017. The note or bond will specify the amount to be repaid at the end of the contract time. A $1,000 bond, for example, has a face value of $1,000—that amount is to be paid on a designated maturity date. Thus, based on the information presented previously from Marriott’s financial statements, that company will eventually be required to pay $350 million to the holders of its Series I notes.

Notes and bonds can also be set up to allow the debtor to choose to repay part or all of the face value prior to the due date. Such debts are often referred to as “callable.” This feature is popular because it permits refinancing if interest rates fall. A new loan is obtained at a cheap interest rate with the money used to pay off old notes or bonds that charge high interest rates. With some debts, no part of the face value is scheduled for repayment until the conclusion of the contract period. The debtor pays the entire amount (sometimes referred to as a balloon payment) when the contract reaches the end of its term.

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